Abidah, Andi

2017 “Symbols of Social Strata Border in Traditional House Architecture (Case Study: Saoradja Lapinceng and Banua” Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research (ASSEHR), 149

This research is about special characteristics of two traditional houses in Sulawesi, Indonesia, namely Saoradja Lapinceng and Banua Layuk. The Saoraja Lapinceng is a noble house of Bugis tribe in South Sulawesi and Banua layuk is a noble house of Mamasa tribe in West Sulawesi. The elements of traditional houses have specific meanings, known by members of certain group and honoured as a code in community. These are including seating positions within the house, based on social strata. Nowadays, the custom loses its importance as chairs become more common for sitting activity. Qualitative research was applied to approach this topic supported by interviews and photographs .

Acciaioli, Greg

1985 “Culture as art: from practice to spectacle in indonesia” Canberra Anthropology 8(1-2): 148-72.
1990 “How to win followers and influence spirits: propitiation and participation in a multi-ethnic community of central Sulawesi, Indonesia” Anthropological Forum 6(2): 207-35.
1998Bugis Entrepreneurialism and Resource Use: Structure and PracticeANTROPOLOGI INDONESIA 57: 81-91.

Abstrak: Tulisan ini mengkaji beragam aspek dari pemukiman Bugis, organisasi ekonomi dan pemanfaatan sumberdaya yang dilaksanakan orang-orang Bugis. Kajian yang dilakukan tidaklah terpaku pada analisis struktural masyarakat Bugis, tetapi lebih pada strategi-strategi dalam memperoleh pencaharian, bertolak dari perspektif teori ‘praktis’. Kelenturan dalam komposisi rumah tangga dan para pengikut melandasi kelabilan pengusaha-pengusaha Bugis dan kemampuan pemukim-pemukim Bugis untuk beradaptasi pada kesempatan-kesempatan pasar, dan kemungkinan perolehan sumber-sumber daya lokal. Proses mengadopsi pengikut- pengikut sebagai kerabat, serta orientasi pada tingkat-tingkat yang berbeda dari otonomi perrorangan dalam tahap-tahap kehidupan yang berbeda, juga menyumbang pada kelenturan kemampuan berwirausaha orang-orang Bugis. Kemampuan untuk merekonseptualisasi wilayah-wilayah yang baru dihuni sebagai tempat-tempat yang telah dikenali sebelumnya, juga menyumbang pada kesuksesan pengusaha-pengusaha Bugis di luar tanah kelahirannya. Tulisan ini diakhiri dengan mengkaji bagaimana semua faktor itu menyumbang tidak hanya pada keberhasilan berwirausaha pemukim-pemukim Bugis, tetapi juga pada keacuhan mereka terhadap upaya mengkonservasi sumber daya dalam wilayah-wilayah yang mereka kunjungi.

2000 “Kinship and debt; The social organization of Bugis migration and fish marketing at Lake Lindu,Central Sulawesi” Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde 156(3): 588-617, 635-54.
2001Grounds of Conflict, Idioms of Harmony: Custom, Religion, and Nationalism in Violence Avoidance at the Lindu Plain, Central SulawesiIndonesia 72: 81-114.
2004From Economic Actor to Moral Agent: Knowledge, Fate and Hierarchy among the Bugis of SulawesiIndonesia 78: 147-179
2007From customary law to indigenous sovereignty: reconceptualizing masyarakat adat in contemporary Indonesia” in Jamie S. Davidson & David Henley eds. The Revival of Tradition in Indonesian Politics: The deployment of adat from colonialism to indigenism (London: Routledge), 319-36.
2008Environmentality Reconsidered: Indigenous To Lindu Conservation Strategies and the Reclaiming of the Commons in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia” in Galvin M, Haller T, editors People, Protected Areas and Global Change: Participatory Conservation in Latin America, Africa, Asia and Europe. (Bern: Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 3.), 401-30.

This contribution is the only one in the present volume that is not related to the NCCR North-South research programme. It was chosen for publication in People, Protected Areas and Global Change: Participatory Conservation in Latin America, Africa, Asia and Europe because of its specific theoretical and regional angle, which would otherwise be lacking in the collection of cases. Greg Acciaioli provides us with a vivid example of how local powerful stakeholders use the notion of being indigenous in a subtle way to accommodate state and NGO discourses and narratives, while at the same time trying to keep control over their land in the Lore Lindu National Park area, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Acciaioli examines how the local To Lindu group is dealing strategically with the option of a park in their area, facing immigration from people from other regions in Sulawesi. Based on the knowledge that immigrant groups have to be integrated and that, at the same time, the government of Indonesia and NGOs have an interest in conservation, the To Lindu leaders use the ideology of nature in peril due to immigrant settlers. The indigenous leaders therefore engage in a participatory conservation dis- course, fostering indigenous knowledge and indigenous institutions meant for application to conservation of the forest area. While showing that they have incorporated conservation issues, their main strategic interest is to control the amount of land used by the immigrant farming communities by benefiting politically from the PA setting in which they participate. Acciaioli uses this example to give a critical reading of Agrawal’s idea of “environmentality” (Agrawal 2005) as a form of local incorporation of conservation by government and NGOs, thus making an important theoretical contribution that reaches beyond this volume.

2009 “Conservation and community in the Lore Lindu National Park (Sulawesi): Customary custodianship, multi-ethnic participation, and resource entitlement” in Carol Warren, John Fitzgerald McCarthy ed. Community, Environment and Local Governance in Indonesia: Locating the Commonweal (Routledge).

In their report Whose Common Natural Resources? Whose Common Good? Lynch and Harwell (2002: xxvi) seek to ‘articulate a new paradigm that emphasizes local community well-being as an integral and important part of the national interest’. As in many other studies that consider community participation as the key to enhancing sustainability and achieving environmental justice, their exploration of the possibilities of gaining recognition for the community-based property rights of local peoples takes for granted the analytic viability of the notion of ‘community’ as a locus of what we in this volume have labelled the ‘commonweal’ (Warren and McCarthy 2002). Others, however, have disputed the theoretical utility of dependence upon this notion. In their classic article ‘Enchantment and disenchantment: the role of community in natural resource conservation’, Agrawal and Gibson (1999) analyse the problematic character of this focal concept, noting how many of the distinctive features used to construct this concept are often belied by social arrangements on the ground. They demonstrate how the criteria of smallscale, fixed territorial habitation, homogeneity of social structure, commonality of interest and shared allegiance to norms actually mask not only the divisions within communities, but also the intra-community confl icts that catalyse contestation of resource entitlements rather than conservation of scarce resources (Agrawal and Gibson 2001: 7-12).1 In their view, cleavages along ethnic, religious, linguistic and other lines often disrupt conservation efforts. The lack of shared norms among different segments, and even individuals, of a purported community requires considering the actual practices of local actors: ‘A more acute understanding of community in conservation can be founded only by understanding that actors within communities seek their own interests in conservation programs, and that these interests may change as new opportunities arise’ (Agrawal and Gibson 2001: 13).

2010 “Lake and land at Lindu: imposition, accommodation and contestation in the revaluation of resources in upland central Sulawesi” Asian journal of social science 38(2): 239-57.

This article examines how non-local frameworks and interventions have set the parameters of the local exercise of agency in regard to the use and valuing of resources in the upland valley of Lindu. Exploiting opportunities opened up by contemporary interventions, the indigenous To Lindu have revitalised their local custom (adat) as a community resource management system under the aegis of furthering conservation. This move has elicited various reactions from the migrants who have settled in Lindu in the last five decades. While largely accommodating their practices to customary regulation of fishing in Lake Lindu by the indigenous Lindu adat councils, these migrants have nevertheless continued to contest the imposition of customary restrictions on land ownership and limits on individual cultivation of land. These strategies of imposition of customary regulation by the indigenes and corresponding accommodations and contestations on the part of the migrants are also embedded in divergent definitions of Lindu as a locality, including whether resources should be governed on the model of a commons or open access regimen. The balancing through negotiations of these various valuations of Lindu and its resources — as customary territory, as open access land for development, as an enclave within a national park — will depend not only upon local initiatives, but also upon such external interventions as impending agrarian legislation that may grant national recognition to customary land. However, such external interventions will be complemented by local strategies of imposition, accommodation and contestation in forging new senses of locality.

2017 “Finding Tools to Limit Sectarian Violence in Indonesia: The Relevance of Restorative Justice” The American Journal of Economics and Sociology 76(5): 1219-1255.

This article explores the relevance of the restorative justice paradigm to issues of conflict avoidance and resolution in Indonesia. Sectarian violence engulfed Indonesia in the late 1990s after the fall of the New Order, largely as a result of resource competition and other economic factors. In addition, the revival of customary forms of authority through the national indigenous peoples movement exacerbated the potential for conflict between long‐settled indigenes and more recent migrants. A case study shows how the spread of communal conflict to the Lindu plain in Central Sulawesi was averted despite the sectarian violence in a nearby city. Local customary procedures of adjudication were insufficient to cope with such issues in a multiethnic context, as the ethnic groups in the area did not all subscribe to the same body of custom (adat). Instead, a diverse assembly of stakeholders invoked nationalist idioms of harmony and consensus to forge an agreement to avoid violence. Previous legal theorists have pointed to adat as a preexisting respository of restorative justice practices. However, this article argues that interethnic contexts require restorative practice to forge novel syntheses to deal with communal violence. Such syntheses may incorporate adat mechanisms, but they must also integrate other tools that gain the allegiance of multiple groups to work toward reconciliation and avoidance of further violence.

Adriani, Nicolaus

1920   Concerning the ligature in Bare’e and some related languages” translated by David Mead, “Over het tusschenzetsel in het Bare’e en eenige verwante talen.” Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 39:496–510.
1920   “The Effect of Western Rule on Animistic Heathenism.” IRM 9 (1): 81-5.
1925   “The Peculiar Language of the Heavenly Powers.” IRM 14 (1): 59-72.

Alvard, Michael

2000   “The Potential for Sustainable Harvests by Traditional Wana Hunters in Morowali Nature Reserve, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia” Human Organization 59(4): 428-440.

Conflicts arise between subsistence hunters and those who wish to conserve the animals they hunt. Solutions require measures of sustainability. Data are presented on the sustainability for the Wana hunters living in the highlands of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Pigs (Sus celebensis) and dwarf buffalo (Bubalus spp.) account for 58 percent and 40 percent of the large game harvest by weight. Primates (Macaca tonkeana) are occasionally killed. Data suggest pig hunting is sustainable, primates may have been overhunted in the past, and that dwarf buffalo are vulnerable. Using GPS, the area encompassing all of fields, traps, and house locations for the sample of 153 Wana was measured to be only 18.1 km2. To sustain their current harvest of pigs, however, the Wana need access to at least 290km2 of catchment. Their harvest of 0.30 pigs per person per year can be sustained if the Wana population density is no greater than 0.53 persons per km2. Pigs are the most sustainable of the Wana’s prey options. Removing primates from the Wana’s diet would have a negligible nutritional effect. Persuading Wana hunters not to pursue dwarf buffalo will be the most difficult challenge for Morowali’s managers.

Aragon, Lorraine

1990   Barkcloth Production in Central SulawesiExpedition 32(1): 33-48.
1991   “Revised rituals in central Sulawesi: The maintenance of traditional cosmological concepts in the face of allegiance to world religion” Anthropological Forum 6(3): 371-84.
1996   “twisting the gift: translating precolonial into colonial exchanges in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia” American Ethnologist 23(1): 43–60.

In this article I reexamine the relationship between gift giving and hierarchy using data about early‐20th‐century colonial contacts in western Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Dutch colonial officials and European missionaries disrupted prior community and regional exchange patterns and initiated strategic policies of asymmetric interethnic gift giving that elevated European missionaries and officials as political and spiritual sources of power.

1996   “Suppressed and Revised Performances: Raego’ Songs of Central Sulawesi” Ethnomusicology 40(3): 413-439
1996   “’Japanese Time’ and the Mica Mine: Occupation Experiences in the Central Sulawesi Highlands” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 27(1): 49-63.

During World War II, Japanese soldiers forced highlanders in western Central Sulawesi to operate a mica mine. Questions about the mine’s purpose are clarified by examining mica’s strategic uses for wartime electronics. Accounts of the occupation by highlanders contribute to understanding changes in their post-war religious and ethnic identities.

1996   “Reorganizing the Cosmology: The Reinterpretation of Deities and Religious Practice by Protestants in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 27(2): 350-373.

2000  Can Central Sulawesi Christians and Muslims get along? An Analysis of Indonesian Regional ConflictANTROPOLOGI INDONESIA 63: 53-63.

Sulawesi Tengah acapkali digambarkan sebagai wilayah yang secara agamawi ‘mudah tersulut’, yang terletak secara geografis dan sosial di antara propinsi Sulawesi Selatan yang mayoritas Islam dengan propinsi Sulawesi Utara yang mayoritas Kristen. Bahkan, sejak awal abad keduapuluh, kolonial Belanda telah memilah penduduk dataran tinggi yang animis dan potensial untuk menjadi pemeluk agama Kristen dari penduduk dataran rendah beragama Islam. Sesudah Perang Dunia II, wilayah itu mengalami arus pemberontakan Kahar Muzakar dan Permesta dari arah selatan dan utara Sulawesi yang berkerangka keagamaan. Pada akhir masa Orde Baru, letupan-letupan bernuansa agama dan etnis dipadamkan secara militer, walaupun tidak dienyahkan. Bahkan, sejumlah kebijakan Orde Baru juga meningkatkan kompetisi dan rasa bermusuhan di antara pemeluk Islam dan Kristen.
Dengan membandingkannya dengan kasus-kasus serupa yang terjadi di wilayah lain, penulisnya mengulas konflik-konlik pada masa akhir dan pasca Orde Baru di Sulawesi Tengah; serta dinamika historis dari aliansi-aliansi ekonomi dan politik di dataran tinggi dan dataran rendah Sulawesi Tengah. Penulis mengkaji ulang sifat dari interaksi Kristen-Islam sebagaimana diamatinya pada tahun 1980-an dan awal 1990-an. Berdasarkan temuannya bahwa persaingan-persaingan religi tidaklah terlalu penting, bahkan ada toleransi serta perkawinan campuran, dan kompetisi untuk perolehan sumberdayalah yang terjadi di antara penduduk lama dengan pendatang baru di kota atau daerah transmigrasi, maka ia mempertanyakan sejauhmanakah konflik yang terjadi merupakan konflik agama atau bahkan ‘etnis’? Kemiripan dalam sejumlah aspek agama Kristen dan Islam, toleransi timbal balik, dan kesamaan sejarah sosial-ekonomi yang umumnya kurang dinilai penting, dikaji penulisnya sebagai usaha awal untuk memahami konflik, dan sebagai sumbang saran untuk meningkatkan keharmonisan dan kesejahteraan sosial di Sulawesi Tengah di masa datang.

2000   Fields of the Lord : animism, Christian minorities, and state development in Indonesia (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press).
2001  Communal Violence in Poso, Central Sulawesi: Where People Eat Fish and Fish Eat PeopleIndonesia 72: 45-79.
2003   “Missions and omissions of the supernatural: Indigenous cosmologies and the legitimisation of ‘religion’ in IndonesiaAnthropological Forum 13(2): 131-40.
2003   “Expanding Spiritual Territories: Owners of the Land, Missionization, and Migration in Central Sulawesi” in C.A. Kammerer & N. Tannenbaum, ed. Founders’ Cults in Southeast Asia: Ancestors, Polity, and Identity Monograph 52 (New Haven: Yale Southeast Asian Studies), 113-33.
2005   “Mass Media Fragmentation and Narratives of Violent Action in Sulawesi’s Poso ConflictIndonesia 79: 1-55.
2007  Elite competition in Central Sulawesi” in Renegotiating boundaries: local politics in post-Suharto Indonesia, edited by Henk Schulte Nordholt and Gerry Van Klinken (Leiden: KITLV), 39–66.
2008   “Reconsidering displacement and internally displaced persons (IDPs) from Poso” in Communal conflicts in Indonesia: Causes, dynamics, and displacement, edited by Eva-Lotta Hedman (Ithaca, NY: Cornell Southeast Asia Publications), 173–205.
2013   “Development Strategies, Religious Relations, and Communal Violence in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia: A Cautionary Tale” in Ascher W., Mirovitskaya N. (eds) Development Strategies, Identities, and Conflict in Asia. Politics, Economics and Inclusive Development. (Palgrave Macmillan, New York)

Indonesia’s development strategies since independence after World War II have varied across the archipelago, unevenly affecting local intergroup cooperation and conflict. This chapter concerns Central Sulawesi, a province on one of the large “outer islands,” where communal violence emerged after the resignation of President Suharto in 1998.1 Although the Poso district hostilities had complex local, national, and international political dimensions that have been discussed elsewhere (Aragon 2001, 2005, 2011, 37–54; Sidel 2006; Van Klinken 2007), the focus here is how regional development policies, particularly transmigration and the intensive mono-cropping of cacao, contributed to dramatic and violence-provoking changes in Poso’s demography, land tenure, and political dominance. The Central Sulawesi case provides a cautionary tale of how violence, displacement, and religious territorialization can follow as unintended side effects of regional development policies whose structural inequities intersect tragically with transregional stresses; in this case, the Southeast Asian fiscal crisis, national regime transition, global economy price shifts, and transnational Muslim-Christian distrust. This chapter begins with a chronological description of three periods of Central Sulawesi religious change and development, which are followed by an outline of Poso conflict dynamics, and results of the author’s interviews with people who experienced the Poso district hostilities.

Atkinson, Jane

1983   “religions in dialogue: the construction of an Indonesian minority religion” American Ethnologist 10(4): 684–696.

Clifford Geertz (1966) proposes a definition of religion that transcends a conven- tional distinction between world religions and traditional religions. He regards religions as particular cultural solutions to universal problems of meaning. But problems of meaning are experienced by cultural actors only in the context of social systems. Thus, religions as cultural systems are impressed by the institutional conditions of their construction. This point is demonstrated here by an ex- amination of developing religious consciousness among the Wana of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, in response to national religious policies.

1987   “The Effectiveness of Shamans in an Indonesian Ritual” American Anthropologist 89(2): 342–355.

Healing is the ostensible purpose of the mabolong, a shamanic ceremony of the Wana of Sulawesi, Indonesia. But the ritual serves political ends as well by providing an arena for performers to establish and maintain their reputations as shamans. Shamans’ attempts to attract and to hold an audience can eclipse their efforts to heal. In light of this dynamic, the ritual’s therapeutic potential for patients can be considered only when its symbolic and dramatic appeal for an entire community is understood. The interplay of symbolism, drama, and therapy is examined with special reference to theories of ritual and catharsis proposed by Lévi‐Strauss and T. J. Scheff.

1989   The art and politics of Wana shamanship (Berkeley: University of California Press)
1990   “How gender makes a difference in Wana society” in J.M. Atkinson & S. Errington eds. Power and difference: Gender in Island Southeast Asia (Stanford: Stanford University Press).
2003   “Who appears in the family album: Writing the history of Indonesia’s Revolutionary Struggle” in Renato Rosaldo ed. Cultural Citizenship in Island Southeast Asia: Nation and Belonging in the Hinterlands (University of California Press), 134-61.

Azca , Muhammad Najib

2011   AFTER JIHAD: A Biographical Approach to Passionate Politics in Indonesia (PhD thesis, Faculty Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences (FMG), Institute Amsterdam Institute for Social Science Research (AISSR))

This dissertation studies the biographies of non-local jihaood actors who participated in the religious communal conflict that took place in eastern Indonesia, namely in Ambon-Maluku and Poso-Central Sulawesi, during the early stages of Indonesia’s democratic transi- tion. Jihad mobilization during that period successfully recruited several thousand Muslims from many areas of the archipelago, as well as from various Islamic activism networks, to take part in the conflict, which they viewed as a ‘religious war’. This study, in contrast to most studies that have focused exclusively on conflict situations and mobilization processes, dedicates its attention to the situation and networks in the post jihad period by observing the life trajectory of the actors. Unlike many studies that have centered on one single group or movement network, it examines and compares three types of Islamic activism, namely pious, jihadi, and political.
Through extensive fieldwork in various places in Indonesia, from the (post) conflict areas of Ambon and Poso to the hometowns of the informants in East and Central Java, and also correctional institutions in Jakarta where some post-jihadists are imprisoned, this study has selected ten life history informants for discussion: four ex Laskar Jihad activists represent the pious ideological stream; three Jama’ah Islamiyah activists represent the jihadi stream; whilst three FPI, PKS and PBB activist informants represent the political stream. Applying an interpretive biographical method, this study analyzes the life story narratives of the informants in three different stages of jihad participation: before, during, and after. Informed by the ‘pas- sionate politics’ approach of social movement theory, it discusses three sets of research questions, namely: How did they become ji- hadists? What did the jihad experience mean to the actors? How did the jihad experience influence the life trajectories of the actors?
Through discussing the life story narratives of the post-jihad- ist informants, the dissertation has developed three main arguments as follows. First, it is argued that the informants became jihadists after experiencing ‘radical reasoning’, a set of micro-sociological decision-making processes to join jihad, involving both cognition and emotion through either ‘cognitive opening’ or ‘moral shocks’ or both. It is also argued that the decision to join jihad can be seen as an act of identity because it takes place in the context of, or as a re- sponse to, identity crisis experienced by the informants. So, jihad as an act of identity is a way of resolving the identity crisis experienced by its actors through ‘radical reasoning’, which ruptures the ‘normal life’ of the actor and marks a new phase in the actor’s life.
It is interesting, however, to notice that these three types of Islamic activism produce different narratives of becoming a jihad- ist. For pious activists, fatwas by leading Salafi clerics are a crucial part of their narratives, while, conversely, such discourse is almost absent in jihadi and political narratives. While ‘moral shocks’ are experienced by many informants, it is particularly strongly narrated by political activists. For jihadi activists, who joined jihad firstly abroad and later in their home country, ‘moral shocks’ and ‘cogni- tive opening’ are firstly experienced in a ‘package’ through a recruit- ment training, while their later engagement with jihad actions are merely a continuation of their involvement with jihadi activism.
Second, it is argued that jihad experience was interpreted as a ‘radical experience’ bringing about a ‘pivotal meaning structure’ to the jihad actor that restructured the other activities in the actor’s life. It is furthermore argued that the jihad experience was a ‘radical experience’ for the actor because it consisted of two key elements, first, ‘high-risk’ activism, that by its nature involves high levels of participation ‘costs’ and ‘risks’ that bear powerful meanings for the actor through triggering a high level of emotions; and second, religious symbols and meanings, as reflected in the use of the term jihad, which have a powerful effect on the actor. These two elements combine to produce ‘a pivotal meaning structure’ as reflected in the use of the marker jihadist to refer to those who participate in the movement, which eventually marks the life phase of the actor by symbolically distinguishing between before and after the jihad.
It is interesting, however, to note that the different types of jihad activists narrated the jihad experience in different ways. Fighting and combat narratives are the constant main themes of jihadi ac- tivists, while pious and political activists narrate a variety of themes reflecting various roles during jihad: from combat to da’wa, from public relations to children’s education. It is argued that jihad experi- ence is interpreted through a particular ideological framework from a certain Islamic activism network as: action and expression of pi- etism for pious activists; action and expression of jihadism for jihadi activists; action and expression of political Islamism for political activists. Thus, jihad participation brings about different kinds of actor in its aftermath: the creation of pious actors for pious activ- ism, jihadi actors for jihadi activism and political actors for political activism.
Third, it is argued that the jihad experience is ‘a pivotal event’ that informs the subsequent life trajectory of the actor in combina- tion with two main factors, namely biographical traits and social networks. Through an analytical framework of three kinds of social networks, namely, the core-network, tactical-network and extended- network, it is argued that the dynamic engagement of informants with different social networks influence the choice of life-trajectory in the post-jihad period. Core-network is defined as a social network through which the actor joins the jihad; tactical-network as a social network of jihadist networks which occur temporarily during the jihad period; and extended-network as an extension of the social networks, which develop in the aftermath of jihad participation. It is contended that the narratives indicate a sort of pattern of ‘after jihad’ life trajectory for the jihadists from the three types of Islamic activism: pious activists tend to become involved in a ‘enclave com- munity’ or ‘holy kampong’; jihadi activists tend to continue carrying out terrorism actions and are eventually subject to a prison sentence; political activists tend to become further involved and to take a big- ger role in local politics.
Such life trajectory patterns appear to be related to the mem- bership affiliation patterns which characterize each particular type of Islamic activism: pious and jihadi activists usually follow exclu- sive-affiliation, meaning they usually affiliate only with their own activism network, whereas political activists usually follow mul- tiple-affiliation, meaning they usually affiliate with more than one activism network. Thus this study suggests that the more extensive the extended-network of the political activist the more likely it is the actor will play a larger role within the core-network, whereas conversely the more extensive the extended-networks of the pious or jihadi activist the more likely the actor will experience trouble within the core-network.
The study contributes a theoretical shaping to a new approach in social movement research: the so-called ‘passionate politics’ approach. Empirically, this dissertation enriches academic study in the intersection of communal violence and Islamic movements in four ways: by focusing on non-local actors; by comparing different net- works of non-local actors; by following the trajectory of actors in the post-jihad period; and by emphasizing and giving voice to the ‘foot soldier’ actors.***

Barkmann, Jan; Günter Burkard;Heiko Faust; Michael Fremerey; Sebastian Koch; Agus Lanini

n.d.   “Land tenure rights, village institutions, and rainforest conversion in Central Sulawesi” (Indonesia). In: Tscharntke T., Leuschner C., Veldkamp E., Faust H., Guhardja E., Bidin A. (eds) Tropical Rainforests and Agroforests under Global Change. Environmental Science and Engineering (Environmental Engineering). (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 141-60

Small-scale agriculture continues to account for a significant share of global forest conversion, especially, in remote forest frontier areas such as the mountainous forests of Central Sulawesi. Although much information on the proximate driving forces of deforestation can be obtained from analyses of the household level, the analysis of supra-household level institutional phenomena is indispensable for an adequate understanding of forest conversion. This is particularly true for the interaction of local institutions governing land access and tenure rights. In this contribution, we synthesize results from several related studies conducted around Lore Lindu National Park (LLNP) that investigate this relation. Contrary to the theoretical argument that tenure security fosters resource conservation, we find that the high tenure security of formal land titles increasingly available in the region attracts migrants who are aggressive buyers of land for petty capitalist cocoa production. At the end of the process, a substantial share of the autochthonous population finds itself either landless or is forced to cut marginal forest land, often inside LLNP. Restricting land ownership to traditional forms of community land rights avoids the formation of a class of newly landless locals but it comes at costs in terms of social discrimination and lost agricultural income.

Barr, Donald F.and Sharon G., and C. Salombe

n.d.   Languages of Central Sulawesi: Checklist, Preliminary Classification, Language Maps, Wordlists. (Ujung Pandang: Hasanuddin University).

Braithwaite, John & Valerie, Michael Cookson and Leah Dunn

Brown, Graham & Rachel Diprose

2009  Bare-Chested Politics in Central Sulawesi: The Dynamics of Local Elections in a Post-conflict Region” In Deepening Democracy in Indonesia? Direct Elections for Local Leaders, ed. Maribeth Erb and Priyambudi Sulistiyanto. (Singapore: Institute for Southeast Asian Studies), 352-373.

This paper examines how far the 2005 direct Pilkada (District Head Elections) in Poso, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia – where there has been widespread ethno-religious violence in the past – were indicative of a move towards a more ‘positive’ peace. Using a two-level conceptualisation of peace at the elite and the grassroots level, we examine various interventions during the election and voting patterns, to discern to what extent positive peace has been achieved. A positive peace is one which promotes a mutual vision for the future, civic identities, a bridging of ethno-religious identity cleavages, and endeavours to address some of the underlying problems of the conflict. The results of the election indicate a strong negative peace. During the election, there were interventions in place and close monitoring of the implementation to ensure that the elections were peaceful. In some but not all quarters in Poso, the results of the Pilkada indicate there are small movements at the elite level to promote local civic identities and bridge ethno-religious cleavages. However, this did not translate into grassroots voting patterns in favour of slates which were representative of new local civic identities and a bridging of ethno-religious cleavages, which in turn could reduce the incentives to mobilise along ethno-religious lines. Instead, voting patterns indicate that people were reverting to religious affiliations when casting their vote in order to protect their interests. Since the elections, however, there is evidence to suggest that cross-group collective peace building processes are emerging from the grassroots through civil society activities. This has at the very least been evidenced by the restrained reaction of the populace in not engaging in riots or inter-group clashes at the time of the execution of three Christians charged with committing atrocities during the conflict and the sporadic bombings which occurred prior to and following the executions, the murder of three school girls, and other similar incidents which have taken place following the elections.

Burkard, Günter

2005  Agrarian Change and Alang-Alang in a Rain Forest Margin Community: A Case Study from Central Sulawesi STORMA (Stability of Rain Forest Margins) Discussion Paper Series Sub-program A on Social and Economic Dynamics in Rain Forest Margins No. 15 (Universität Göttingen).

Imperata cyclindrica, or alang-alang as it is often referred to in writings on SE-Asia, is one of the most intensively studied weeds of the world. In investigating alang-alang related problems in a small holder community in the vicinity of the Lore Lindu National Park on the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia, this paper challenges some common claims about the origins, attached values and future perspectives of alang-alang. The sources of imperata infusion in the research area are neither linked to population pressure nor to inadequate cropping techniques in dry land cultivation. Rather, alang-alang expanded as a reaction to the development of the wet rice sector which absorbs most of the time and labour of the farmers. Often being forced to abandon their rain-fed plots in order to manage their wet rice fields, farmers create ideal conditions for the grass to expand. However, whereas on the one hand alang-alang represents a major element of “criticality”, the alang-alang plot as such offers important opportunities provided by other plants growing naturally in imperata sites. A culturally defined preference for rice subsistence as well as an orientation aimed at securing survival rather than enhancing profitability make an effective control of the weed difficult.

2007  Two types of “desa”: Community Representation, Communal Identity and Property Relations in the Kulawi Valley, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia STORMA (Stability of Rain Forest Margins) Discussion Paper Series Sub-program A on Social and Economic Dynamics in Rain Forest Margins No. 19 (Universität Göttingen).

This paper analyses some structural problems related to the construction of a “customary law community” inside the Lore Lindu National Park in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. The resource management institutions of the village of Toro are generally perceived as being inherently sustainable, sufficiently fulfilling the Park Authority’s demand for forest conservation. However, rather than being indigenous creations of the ancestors, Toro’s institutions and principles are based on the state-defined notion of “community controlled land”, the existence of which is denied by the regional government and by neighbouring villages. Controlled by those who have access to certain bodies of relevant knowledge, the process of adequate “community representation” is characterised by a high degree of participatory exclusion. Whereas village leaders justify their claims to a “right of avail” (hak ulayat) in terms of local wisdom, common people perceive their claims to private property (hak milik) as crucial to socio-economic security. Different notions of “community” and different representations of property relations, which are embedded in different politico-legal discourses and regional histories, hamper the formation of “village alliances” in law enforcement and monitoring. These, in turn, constitute a necessary precondition for the sustainable protection of the forest resource.

2007  Community Conservation Agreements as Institutions for the Common Pool Resource Forest Margin: Genesis, Performance and Contexts in the Napu Valley STORMA (Stability of Rain Forest Margins) Discussion Paper Series Sub-program A on Social and Economic Dynamics in Rain Forest Margins No. 20 (Universität Göttingen).

This paper documents the processes of organizational change in the village of Watumaeta, located in the Napu valley, 103 km to the South of Central Sulawesi ́s provincial capital, Palu. Having a long established image of being a “worst case” in regard to leadership practices, social disintegration and deforestation in the area, within the last years Watumaeta has made substantial improvements in regard to community organization and the management of natural resources. The Watumaeta case shows that – far from being constant facilitating factors – one and the same “design principles” may have contradictory effects under different circumstances. The changes observed cannot be explained by conservationist motivations or equity concerns, but by the threat posed by socio-economic insecurity and mutual vulnerability. In contrast to Neo-institutionalist approaches based on “methodological individualism”, this case study focuses on the cultural, socio-economic and institutional “embeddedness” of the common pool resource forest margin.

2008  Cocoa Boom, Rice Subsistence and the Emergence of Exclusionary Labor Institutions in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia: Some Conclusions from Sintuwu STORMA (Stability of Rain Forest Margins) Discussion Paper Series Sub-program A on Social and Economic Dynamics in Rain Forest Margins No. 23 (Universität Göttingen).

This paper analyses the effects of the Central Sulawesi cocoa boom and its associated patterns of migration on the rural labor market in the village of Sintuwu, Palolo valley. The domination of cocoa in the dry land sector and the subsequent conversion of wet rice fields into cocoa plantations caused a split between those with relative stable access to rice and work and those who have become almost excluded from agricultural work. Workers with “family-access” can rely on stable contracts with fix partners for many years, others instead have to look out for minimal contracts with many partners. The new institution of exclusionary work arrangements in wet rice cultivation is framed within a locally dominant ideology of kinship. Rather than being a local feature since times immemorial, an exclusive form of shared poverty has arisen as a result of capitalist penetration and a commodification of the land market. On the other hand, the “cocoa revolution” has not led to a commercialisation of relations of production, neither the dry land nor the wet rice sector, but it has contributed to an ever-increasing social polarisation in Sintuwu.

2008   “From “Wild West” to “Learning Organization”: Processes of Institutional Change in Watumaeta, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia” in Burkard, Günter & Michael Fremerey, Eds. Matter of Mutual Survival: Social Organization of Forest Management in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia (LIT Verlag Münster)

This paper documents the processes of organizational change in the village of Watumaeta, located in the Napu valley, 103 km to the south of Central Sulawesi’s capital, Palu. Having a long established image of being a “worst case” in regard to leadership practices, social disintegration and deforestation in the area, within the last years Watumaeta has made substantial improvements in regard to community organization and management of natural resources. The Watumaeta case shows that – far from being constant facilitating factors – one and the same “design principles” may have contradictory effects under different circumstances. The changes observed cannot be explained by conservationist motivations or equity concerns, but by the threat posed by socio-economic insecurity and mutual vulnerability. In contrast to Neo-institutionalist approaches based on “methodological individualism,” this case study focuses on the cultural, socio-economic and institutional “embedded ness” of the common pool resource forest margin.

2009  “Locating Rural Communities and Natural Resources in Indonesian Law: Decentralization and Legal Pluralism in the Lore Lindu Forest Frontier, Central Sulawesi” in Development – Organization – Interculturalism. Essays in Honor of Prof. Dr. Michael Fremerey (Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics Supplement No. 91: University of Kassel Press)

Burkard, Günter & Michael Fremerey, Eds.

2008   Matter of Mutual Survival: Social Organization of Forest Management in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia (LIT Verlag Münster)

This volume contains a collection of articles based on empirical social science research in forest margin communities around the Lore Lindu National Park in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. It refers to a worldwide and particularly topical issue, i.e. the declining forest resources and man’s role in the observed processes of nature degradation. However, it refrains from rather simplistic protectionist approaches which boil down to a separation between man and nature in order to avoid the depletion of natural resources. Instead, the approach adopted regards the existence or development of co-evolutionary potentials, both in nature and human society, as a precondition for the establishment of a sustainable equilibrium in the interaction between man and nature.

Cote, Joost

1996   “Colonising Central Sulawesi. The ‘Ethical Policy’ and Imperialist Expansion 1890–1910Itinerario Volume 20(3): 87-10.
2007   Colonising Poso: The Diary of Controleur Emile Gobee, June 1909 – May 1910 (Monash University Press: Monash Asia Institute/ Centre of Southeast Asian Studies Working papers) 78 p.

Just over 100 years ago, Central Sulawesi was invaded by a colonial army. It was the beginning of a century of upheaval and change. Most recently, violent communal conflict has again rocked the Poso region. This corner of Indonesia has experienced many significant ‘moments’ in its modern history which have remained largely unscrutinised. The initial imposition of colonial rule on the Pamona people between 1902 and 1910, partially documented in the present publication, was perhaps the most eventful, and significant in terms of its consequences. Although what is known of the history of the Sulawesi interior suggests that ‘traditional society’ did not remain static in the 19th century, colonialism in the 20th century brought changes over which the inhabitants of the region, initially, had little control (Cote 1996). Nevertheless, the insertion of a colonial presence in Poso did not suppress the active resistance to – or indeed appropriation of – colonial interventions. Over time the changes wrought by colonial intervention came to be naturalised in the social and cultural (and natural) landscape of the region: it came to be the new reality. But at the time when Pamona leaders first contracted with the colonial government, and invited the first missionary into their villages, the Pamona representatives could not have conceived of the ultimate transformations this would bring to their lives. The document introduced here provides an account of that intervention and the initial evidence of the response to it.

2010   “Missionary Albert Kruyt and Colonial Modernity in the Dutch East IndiesItinerario 34(3): 11-24.
2011  Creating Central Sulawesi. Mission Intervention, Colonialism and ‘Multiculturality’” BMGN – Low Countries Historical Review 126(2): 2 – 29

Central Sulawesi provides an example of how, under colonialism, non-state bodies contributed to the creation of new political identities in the Indonesian archipelago, and how the modern Indonesian state came to be based on these. Arguably, at the beginning of the twentieth century, the region was poised to be incorporated into the structure of one or other of the existing powerful Central and Southern Sulawesi political entities. As such, as just another ‘region’ in the sprawling archipelagic colony subjected to standard colonial policy, it should have been readily incorporated into the Indonesian state, albeit through the ‘Sulawesi Permesta’. Instead, in seeking to establish what one writer has described as a ‘volkskerk’ [people’s church], the ‘Poso mission’ established with colonial support by the Nederlandsche Zendinggenootschap [Netherlands Missionary Society] in 1892, was instrumental in defining new religious, cultural and linguistic boundaries. These acted to effectively isolate the Pamona people from adjacent Christian communities established by other missionary endeavours; from their Islamic neighbours and, arguably, from the ‘nation’. As elsewhere in the archipelago, the subsequent process of this region’s reintegration has formed part of the difficult postcolonial legacy inherited by the Indonesian nation.

Downs, Richard E.

1955   “Head-Hunting in IndonesiaBijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 111(1): 40-70.
1956    The Religion of the Bare’e-Speaking Toradja of Central Celebes. Ph.D. thesis, Rijksuniversiteit Leiden.

Gable, Eric

2014   The anthropology of guilt and rapport: Moral mutuality in ethnographic fieldworkHau: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 4(1): 237-258

In this article I use Clifford Geertz’s backhanded defense of Malinowski’s seeming emotional hypocrisy—his dislike of the natives whose point of view he wished to understand—to argue that while empathy or at least sympathy are integral components of the intimacies of fieldwork, they are also the catalyst for the darker and usually far less openly discussed emotions that are associated with these feelings—guilt, anger, and disgust—that are also at play in the fieldwork encounter. Indeed these sentiments, inevitably intersubjective in origin and expression, are intrinsic to the kind of knowledge we produce as ethnographers. I explore how these emotions emerge from or shape conversation in the field and then inflect subsequent analyses. I review encounters I have had with lauje of Sulawesi, Indonesia, and Manjaco of Guinea-Bissau, and museum professionals at Monticello where my interlocutors attempted to guide my research by enlisting my sympathy for their condition, and how such attempts to create fields of moral mutuality inflect in often unpredictable ways my understandings of social life in those places. My focus will be on how the fraught emotion of guilt emerges from and shapes the experience of moral mutuality in ethnographic encounters.

George, Kenneth M.

1990   “Felling a Song with a New Axe: Writing and the Reshaping of Ritual Song Performance in Upland Sulawesi.” Journal of American Folklore 103(407):1 23.

Recent studies on the interplay of written texts and oral performance have shifted away from “intrinsic” models of literacy and orality in favor of approaches that emphasize the ideological, social, and historical character of oral and literate practices. In keeping with this trend, I discuss how and why a minority religious community in Sulawesi (Indonesia) has incorporated writing and related textual practices into its tradition of ritual song performance.

1993   “Lyric, History, and Allegory, or the End of Headhunting Ritual in Highland Sulawesi.” American Ethnologist 20(4):697-717.

This article explores how a minority religious community in highland Sulawesi, Indonesia, brings meaning, history, and polity into being through the lyric discourse of headhunting ritual. The discussion shows how divergent interpretations of a single song work as tactical modes of understanding, as ways to “read with the polity.” In one case, a villager reads the lyrics in such a way as to link the ritual headhunt to the intercultural tensions of the past. In another case, however, a villager finds in the lyrics an allegory of local sexual politics. Both approaches connect ritual violence to the shaping of community.

1993   “Music-making, Ritual, and Gender in a Southeast Asian Hill Society.” Ethnomusicology 37(1):1-27.
1993   “Dark trembling: Ethnographic notes on secrecy and concealment in highland Sulawesi.Anthropological Quarterly 66(4): 230-40.

This ethnographic commentary explores the role of secrecy and concealment in a minority religious community in highland Sulawesi (Indonesia), and their place in the construction
of ethnographic discourse. Discussion shows how a “culture of concealment” has emerged as a practical and realistic response to encroaching ideologies and social formations since the pre-colonial era. At the same time, the political use of secrecy takes its idioms from ritual practice, a site in which concealment may have “ontological” signficance. These dimensions of secrecy shaped the ethnographic dialogue between researcher and hosts, and highlight the need for a critical and reflexive anthropology to ground itself in the socio-historical concerns of those whom ethnographers study.

1995   “Violence, Solace, and Ritual: A Case Study from Island Southeast Asia” Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 19(2): 225-60.

Most headhunting traditions in island Southeast Asia link ritual violence to grief and mourning. Some of the more persuasive analyses of these practices pivot on notions of rage and catharsis, arguing that turbulent emotions motivate persons to take up cleansing acts of violence. This paper seeks a more complex understanding of how ritual may connect bereavement and violence through a look at case materials from highland Sulawesi (Indonesia). Ritual practices there suggestthat the resolution of communal mourning is more significant than personal catharsis in motivating violence; that individual affect is refigured collectively as “political affect;” and that varied discursive forms, such as vows, songs, and noise mediate the ways in which people put grief behind them and resume their lives. Indeed, such discursive forms appear to be generative sites for violence and solace.

1996    Showing Signs of Violence: The Cultural Politics of a Twentieth-Century Headhunting Ritual. (Berkeley: University of California Press).

Grumblies, Anna-Teresa

2013   “Being Wana, Becoming an “Indigenous People”. Experimenting with Indigeneity in Central Sulawesi’ in Brigitta Hauser-Schäublin edited, Adat and Indigeny in Indonesia. Culture and Entitlements between Heteronomy and Self-Ascription, (Göttingen Studies in Cultural Property, Vol. 7, Göttingen: Göttingen University) 81-98.
2016   The Construction of Marginality among Upland Groups in Indonesia: The Case of the Wana of Central Sulawesi (PhD dissertation, Universität zu Köln).
2017   “Conceptualizing Marginality in Indonesia” in Michaela Haug, Martin Rössler, Anna-Teresa Grumblies eds. Rethinking Power Relations in Indonesia: Transforming the Margins (New York: Routledge), 43-61.

Indonesia’s vast landmass offers a wide range of marginalised regions and people. Colonial and postcolonial processes of nation-building have produced various constellations of marginalisation, of inclusion and exclusion, access to rights and resources that resulted in strict centre-periphery dependencies. The downfall of Suharto in 1998 put an end to the hegemony of the country’s core, Java, and realigned power to the margins of the nation. The outcome of decentralisation is a complex system that produced new constellations of dependency on Indonesia’s Outer Islands (cf. Introduction to this volume). Against this background marginality remains a powerful theoretical tool to explore changing power relations as well as the politics of exclusion and contestation. This chapter discusses the meanings of marginality within anthropological discourse and its use for elaborating deeper on the understanding of periphery and margins in Indonesia. The chapter deals with the concept of marginality in general, showing how it has been defined in anthropology, and how the notions of periphery and marginality have been applied to the Indonesian context. Yet the representation of ‘marginality theory’, as undefined as the field is, can at best be partial. For a deeper understanding of these notions for Indonesia’s Outer Islands, the chapter therefore concentrates on the meanings of marginality with particular focus on the Indonesian uplands, regions that are historically described as marginal spheres per se and thus offer valuable insights for the transformation of power constellations within Indonesia.

Harvey, Barbara S.

1977   Permesta: Half a Rebellion. (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell Modern Indonesia Project Monograph Series No. 57.)

Henley David E.F.

1989   The Idea of Celebes in History (Clayton, Vic.: Monash University Press, 1989), 64 p.
2005  Population and the means of subsistence: explaining the historical demography of island southeast asia, with particular reference to sulawesiJournal of Southeast Asian Studies 36(3) 337-72.

The phenomenon of low population growth in pre-colonial Southeast Asia is often interpreted in terms of epidemic disease, internecine warfare or cultural idiosyncracies affecting the birth rate. The modern population boom, in these analyses, results from medical and public health improvements, military pacification or foreign cultural influences. This article, by contrast, argues that in Indonesia and the Philippines population growth has typically been a result of economic growth, and that the general sparsity of the population in early historical times reflected the low ‘carrying capacity’ of the environments in question under the prevailing economic conditions.

2004  Conflict, Justice, and the Stranger-King: Indigenous Roots of Colonial Rule in Indonesia and ElsewhereModern Asian Studies 38(1): 85–144
2005   Fertility, Food and Fever: Population, economy and environment in North and Central Sulawesi, 1600-1930 (Leiden: KITLV Press).
2006  From low to high fertility in Sulawesi (Indonesia) during the colonial period: Explaining the ‘first fertility transition’Population Studies 60(3): 309-27.
2011   “Swidden Farming as an Agent of Environmental Change: Ecological Myth and Historical Reality in IndonesiaEnvironment and History 17(4): 525-554

Swidden farming, once condemned as a major cause of deforestation, has increasingly come to be seen as a form of forest management and even conservation. Under traditional conditions, it is now assumed, swiddening was a sustainable practice and cultivation cycles were long enough to allow forest to regenerate during the fallow interval. This article tests these assumptions against historical evidence from Sulawesi (Indonesia) in the period 1820–1950. The data show that intensive bush-fallow swidden systems, with fallow periods of just five to six years, were already the norm in the early nineteenth century, when average population densities were still low and production for commerce limited. In most cases these traditional short-fallow systems were sustainable, in the sense of not entailing progressive deforestation beyond an established swidden-fallow complex. But within that complex the natural forest was permanently replaced by a much less rich and diverse anthropogenic vegetation. In some areas, moreover, swidden farming took an unsustainable, itinerant form involving the creation of fire-climax grassland. This too appears to have been a traditional pattern; there is no evidence that it resulted from population growth, or from external influences such as migration or commerce. The view of traditional swidden farming as an environmentally benign practice is an idealised one, and should not be allowed to obscure the fundamental incompatibility of agriculture with nature conservation.

Henley David E.F. & Caldwell I.

2008   “Kings and covenants: stranger-kings and social contract in SulawesiIndonesia and the Malay World 36(105): 269-291.

This paper explores the relationship between stranger-kingship and contractual authority in the history of the island of Sulawesi (Indonesia). In most parts of Sulawesi, social and political stratification were always pronounced. At the same time the power of kings and chiefs was restricted by more or less explicit social contracts defining their rights and duties with respect to the political community as a whole, typically consisting of an oligarchy of local nobles. These contracts, spelled out during inauguration ceremonies and on other ritual occasions, were backed up by realistic threats of violence against the ruler, as well as by supernatural sanctions. Besides its contractual character, another characteristic feature of Sulawesi kingship was that rulers were perceived as outsiders to the community – typically by virtue of foreign and/or divine origin, sometimes perhaps also as a result of sickness or physical abnormality. Stranger-kingship enhanced the effectiveness of the social contract by making the ruler easier for his people to dis- cipline or depose if necessary, and harder for them to envy or hate, as well as more objec- tive and impartial in his own dealings with them. These points are illustrated using historical and anthropological data from various parts of Sulawesi, particularly the Bugis kingdoms of the southwest peninsula, the island sultanates of Buton and Banggai off the east coast, and the chiefdoms of Gorontalo and Buol in the north.

Hirosue, M.

1981   “The Transformation of the Eastern Toraja Society in Central Sulawesi and it’s Religion.” Southeast Asia: History and Culture 10: 142-73.

At the end of the 19th century, the self-sufficient economy of the Eastern Toraja Society was disintegrating under the influence of commercial trade at Tomini Bay. Social stratification among the members of the village took place and many fell into debt. In this situation, the village chief had to redeem the villagers’ debts and at the same time maintain law and order in the village despite frequent contact with the outside world. It was this period when Christian missionaries started to work. To respond to the above mentioned problems, the chiefs approached the missionary who was sent from Dutch Missionary Society and was on close terms with a Chinese merchant at Poso. In due course, missionary schools were opened at such villages as Panta, Tomasa, Buyumbayo, and others. Headmen of the villages expected the schools to reconstruct the social order.
In 1901, the Dutch government abandoned it’s policy of non-intervention and after 1905-1907, Eastern Toraja was put under its direct rule. Various policies such as head tax, wet-rice cultivation and moving to the lowland were introduced through chiefs. It was these headmen who supported the Dutch rule. On matter of missionary work, the church as a result, did not dare to oppose the chiefs. At first, the missionaries did not prohibit the polygamy of the chief and other social custom with the exception of headhunting. Moreover, in these undertain situations tadu or prophets attracted many people who were dissatisfied with existing state of things. Then in 1902 and 1908, large religious movements called mevapi arose. The participants of the movements attempted to escape existing circumstances by concentration on heavenly release. While these religious movements arose, the young generation which had graduated from school attempted to participate in commercial trade and plant coffee or coconuts. Under the support of those who were on the rise, the church was entitled to recetive independent authority. Ultimately, in 1910 the church attacked the traditional customs which went against Christianity and prohibited Toraja christians from mowurake, molobo and motengke. But when the new order was established, the Dutch govermnent returned the authority, which was taken away form the headmen during the first few years, to the active hands. Consequently, It was difficult for church to gain independence over the headmen.

Himmelmann, Nikolaus P

2010  Language Endangerment Scenarios: A Case Study from Northern Central Sulawesi” in Margaret Florey ed. Endangered Languages of Austronesia (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 45-72.

Howell, Signe

2015   “Politics of appearances: Some reasons why the UN-REDD project in Central Sulawesi failed to unite the various stakeholders” Asia Pacific Viewpoint 56(1): 37–47.

REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) started as a global project aimed at reducing CO2 emissions by protecting tropical forests. At the same time, several so‐called co‐benefits were listed in the original documents, such as biodiversity and other environmental services, poverty reduction and sustainable livelihoods, and good governance. I argue that REDD+ quickly became a project in which these co‐benefits have emerged to be of central concern and that the rights of affected forest populations today dominate much of the REDD+ discourse. One reason for the redirected focus of REDD+ can be attributed to the activities of international and national environmental and human rights organisations. While this has arguably contributed to a process of democratisation in Indonesia, it has also slowed down the implementation of readiness projects. Taking my example from the UN‐REDD initiative in Central Sulawesi, I examine some reasons why it has been difficult to establish the proposed five REDD sites in the province.

Jacobsson, Bengt.

1991   “Heads, Buffaloes and Marriage among the To Pamona of Central Sulawesi (Indonesia).” In A Conciliation of Powers: The Force of Religion in Society. Goran Aijmer, ed., 34-50. (Goteborg: Institute for Advanced Studies in Social Anthropology at the University of Gothenburg).

Kaudern, Walter

1925a   Structures and Settlements in Central Celebes. (Goteborg: Elanders Boktryckeri Aktiebolag)
1925b   Migrations of the Toradja in Central Celebes. (Gotenborg: Elanders Boktryckeri Aktiebolag)

Kotilainen, Eija-Maija

1990   “Cultural history of the Pacific and the bark cloth making in Central Sulawesi” Trans. Finnish Anthropol. Soc
1997   “A nobleman from Central Sulawesi or a leader of agricultural rituals from North Sulawesi: does it make any difference?” Suomen antropologi 22(4).

Kruyt, Albert C.

1920  The To Rongkong in Central Celebes” translated by Leonardus Geerlings, “De To Rongkong in Midden Celebes.” Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indië 76:366–397
1929   Riddles of the Dead translated by Greg Acciaioli, “Raadsels en de dooden.” Feestbundel uitgegeven door het Koninklijk Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen bij gelegenheid van zijn 150-jarig bestaan 1778–1928, volume 1, 383–392.
1933  Cloth Money on Celebes” translated by David Mead, “Lapjesgeld op Celebes”. Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 73:172-183.

Kruyt, Jan

1924   “Community and Individual in Central Celebes.” IRM 28: 231-9.

Lahadji, Jabar

1999   “Morowali nature reserve and the Wana people”, in Marcus Colchester and Christian Erni ed., Indigenous Peoples and Protected Areas in South and Southeast Asia: From Principles to Practice. (Amsterdam: Aksant Academic Publ.), 228-249.

Li, Tania

1991  Culture, ecology and livelihood in the Tinombo Region of Central Sulawesi” Environmental Management Development in Indonesia Project (EDMI)

Studi ini bcrhubungan dengan masalah jaminan matapencaharian dalam konteks perubahan soal- soal yang bcrhubungan dengan pertanian dataran tinggi di Sulawesi Tengah, Indonesia. Tujuan praktisnya adalah menguraikan cara mendapatkan matapencaharian, serta mengidentifikasi kendala- kendala ekologi, ekonomi dan politik/hukum terhadap usaha-usaha dari penduduk di dataran tinggi tersebut untuk mengubah matapencaharian mereka menjadi lebih baik d^ lebih lerjamin. Studi ini menganalisis sistem yang tradisional dan sistem yang berubah-ubah dari produksi pertanian, dan memperhatikan implikasi-implikasi dari bentuk-bentuk baru dari produksi, seperti usaha-tani tunai yang didasarkan pada pohohn-pohohn yang diusahakan, yang secara radikal mengubah hubungan antara populasi dan lingkungan dengan mendefmisi uland hubungan-hubungan sosial dari akses terhadaplahandantenagakerja. Berdasarkanpenelitian-penelitianlapangansecaralokaldanterinci, studi ini mengamati masalah-masalah yang bcrhubungan dengan daerah dataran tinggi lainnya di Indonesia, dan di daerah Sulawesi.
Bagain pertama menguraikan pola-pola sejarah dan kontemporer dari matapencaharian dalam tiga daerah agroekologi yang berbeda; daerah pantai, daerah pegunungan bagian tengah dan daerah pegunungan bagian dalam. Dalam tiap daerah tersebut, kecenderungan-kecenderungan masa kini yang ada diamati dari potensi perspektipnya untuk mempertinggi atau mengurangi jaminan matapencaharian mereka. Bagian kedua menyelidiki aspek-aspek budaya, politik dan ekonomi dari hubungan di antara ketiga daerah tersebut, dalam konteks keadaan dan ekonomi yang lebih luas. Hal ini mencakup persepsi resmi dari para pemukin dataran tinggi, sistem permerintah daerah, program-program pembangunan yang direncanakan, dan hubungan perdagangan antara daerah pegunungandandenganekonomidaerahmaupundunia. Bagianketigamenyajikanbeberapa rekomendasi-rekomendasi untuk bahan pertimbangan bagi pemerintah pusat dan daerah. Lampiran- lampirannya menganalisis survei rum^tangga dan data dari beberapa studi kasus dari masing- masing daerah, yang menunjukkan adanya keragaman dari strategi-strategi matapencaharian yang dijalankan di daerah tersebut.

1993  Rapid appraisal and baseline data for refined target group identification : Desas E’Eya, Ulatan and Palasa Tengah, Kecamatan Tomini, Kabupaten Donggala, Sulawesi Tengah” Sulawesi Regional Development Project Discussion Series: Discussion Paper #2 (University of Guelph and Directorate General of Regional Development (Bangda) Department of Home Affairs, Indonesia. In cooperation with The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)).
1993  Tenure issues in rural development planning : a case study from central Sulawesi” Sulawesi Regional Development Project Discussion Series Discussion Paper #3 (University of Guelph and Directorate General of Regional Development (Bangda) Department of Home Affairs, Indonesia. In cooperation with The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)).

The paper provides background information on access to natural resources in the TTM Sustainable Development Site. The area is the homeland of the Lauje people,who live and farm predominantly in the hills since the coastal plain is very narrow. Part One discusses the traditional system of access to agricultural land, which is subject to strong individual rights. Other natural resources such as fiielwood, rattan and bamboo are collected from reserve areas which are managed by the local neighbourhood group. A transition in resource use and access is taking place in response to population pressure and the opportunity to intensify agriculture through planting commercial tree crops. Rights to land are becoming even more strongly individualized, and borrowing land from kin and neighbours for food production is becoming moredifficult. People with few inherited land resources and women could be adversely affected by these changes. Part Two discusses the impact of government programs such as commercial tree planting, agroforestry, garden development schemes, new roads and property taxation on the tenure situation. The views of local officials towards traditional tenure rights are described. It is argued that government initiatives entail risks as well as benefits for the traditional land users. Part Three provides initial recommendations of alternative legal frameworks which could increase the tenure security of the traditional land users while encouraging sustainable economic development. It also discusses practical approaches to incorporating tenure concerns in the design of agroforestry, garden development and road projects. Addressing tenure issues in project design maximizes the potential benefits to the local population, and minimizes the risk that they will be displaced from land and resources upon which they depend.

1996   “Household formation, private property, and the state” Sojourn 11(2): 259-87.

Assuming that households are not “natural” units, it is important to explore the processes through which the exterior boundaries and internal dynamics of households are formed and transformed in particular agrarian contexts. This paper examines the impact of two such processes: the privatization of agricultural land, which encloses individuals within households and restricts the range of relationships through which they can access resources; and interventions by the state, both ideological and administrative in nature, which aim to reform households as units of ownership and control. These processes are explored through a review of literature from Europe, Africa, and Southeast Asia, then examined in detail in a case-study from the Tinombo hills of Central Sulawesi. Rejecting the notion that there is a pre-determined trajectory of household development or agrarian change, emphasis is given to the creative, generative dimension of cultural practice which produces particular (partial) resolutions.

1996   Images of Community: Discourse and Strategy in Property RelationsDevelopment and Change 27: 501-527
1998   “Working Separately but Eating Together: Personhood, Property, and Power in Conjugal Relations” American Ethnologist 25(4): 675-694.

This article argues that divergent images of community result not from inadequate knowledge or confusion of purpose, but from the location of discourse and action in the context of specific struggles and dilemmas. It supports the view that ‘struggles over resources’ are also ‘struggles over meaning’. It demonstrates the ways in which contests over the distribution of property are articulated in terms of competing representations of community at a range of levelsand sites. It suggeststhat, through the exerciseof ‘practical political economy’, particular representations of community can be used strategically to strengthen the property claims of potentially disadvantaged groups. In the policy arena, advocates for ‘community based resource management’ have represented communities as sites of consensus and sustain- ability. Though idealized, such representations have provided a vocabulary with which to defend the rights of communities vis-u-vis states. Poor farmers, development planners, consultants and academics can also use representa- tions of community strategically to achieve positive effects, or at least to mitigate negative ones. Most, but not all, of the illustrations in this article are drawn from Indonesia, with special reference to Central Sulawesi.

1999   “Compromising Power: Development, culture & rule in Indonesia” Cultural Anthropology 14(3): 295-322.
2000  Articulating Indigenous Identity in Indonesia: Resource Politics and the Tribal SlotComparative Studies in Society and History 42(1): 149-79.
2001   “Agrarian Differentiation and the Limits of Natural Resource Management in Upland Southeast Asia” IDS Bulletin 32(4): 88-94.

Drawing upon research in the Southeast Asian uplands, especially Sulawesi, this article argues that excessive attention to managerial goals, such as the design of improved institutions, has occluded understandings of agrarian processes that radically reconfigure communities and the relations between people and land. Managerial interventions play a limited role in directing processes of agrarian differentiation, although they do set some of the conditions, often unwittingly. The limits of managerialism notwithstanding, the effort to understand political‐economic processes affecting resource use and allocation is still worthwhile, for there are several possible uses for this kind of knowledge.

2001   “Masyarakat Adat, Difference, and the Limits of Recognition in Indonesia’s Forest ZoneModern Asian Studies 35(3): 645-676.
2001   “Relational Histories and the Production of Difference on Sulawesi’s Upland FrontierJournal of Asian Studies 60(1): 41-66.
2001   “Boundary Work: Community, Market, and State Reconsidered” edited by Arun Agrawal, Clark C. Gibson Communities and the Environment: Ethnicity, Gender and the State in Community-based Conservation (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press), 157-79.
2002   “Local Histories, Global Markets: Cocoa and Class in Upland Sulawesi” Development & Change 33(3): 415–437.

Research and policy concerning the Southeast Asian uplands have generally focused on issues of cultural diversity, conservation and community resource management. This article argues for a reorientation of analysis to highlight the increasingly uneven access to land, labour and capital stemming from processes of agrarian differentiation in upland settings. It draws upon contrasting case studies from two areas of Central Sulawesi to explore the processes through which differentiation occurs, and the role of local histories of agriculture and settlement in shaping farmers’ responses to new market opportunities. Smallholders have enthusiastically abandoned their diversified farming systems to invest their land and labour in a new global crop, cocoa, thereby stimulating a set of changes in resource access and social relations that they did not anticipate. The concept of agency drawn from a culturally oriented political economy guides the analysis of struggles over livelihoods, land entitlements, and the reconfiguration of community, as well as the grounds on which new collective visions emerge.

2007   “Adat in Central Sulawesi: Contemporary deployments” in Jamie S. Davidson & David Henley eds. The Revival of Tradition in Indonesian Politics: The Deployment of Adat From Colonialism to Indigenism (Routledge, London) 337-370.
2007  Introduction” to The Will to Improve: Governmentality, Development, and the Practice of Politics (Durham and London: Duke University Press), 1-30.

The Will to Improve is a remarkable account of development in action. Focusing on attempts to improve landscapes and livelihoods in Indonesia, Tania Murray Li carefully exposes the practices that enable experts to diagnose problems and devise interventions, and the agency of people whose conduct is targeted for reform. Deftly integrating theory, ethnography, and history, she illuminates the work of colonial officials and missionaries; specialists in agriculture, hygiene, and credit; and political activists with their own schemes for guiding villagers toward better ways of life. She examines donor-funded initiatives that seek to integrate conservation with development through the participation of communities, and a one-billion-dollar program designed by the World Bank to optimize the social capital of villagers, inculcate new habits of competition and choice, and remake society from the bottom up. Demonstrating that the “will to improve” has a long and troubled history, Li identifies enduring continuities from the colonial period to the present. She explores the tools experts have used to set the conditions for reform—tools that combine the reshaping of desires with applications of force. Attending in detail to the highlands of Sulawesi, she shows how a series of interventions entangled with one another and tracks their results, ranging from wealth to famine, from compliance to political mobilization, and from new solidarities to oppositional identities and violent attack. The Will to Improve is an engaging read—conceptually innovative, empirically rich, and alive with the actions and reflections of the targets of improvement, people with their own critical analyses of the problems that beset them.

2008   “Social Reproduction, situated politics, and The Will to Improve” Focaal 52: 111-118.

In this essay I briefly explore three themes I find important for an engaged anthropology of development. First, social reproduction: Anthropologists have a long track record of examining processes of social reproduction—how it is that particular patterns of inequality are actively sustained through practices and relations at multiple scales (Smith 1999).

2008   “Contested Commodifications: Struggles over Nature in a National Park” In Joseph Nevins and Nancy Peluso (Eds.) Taking Southeast Asia to Market: Commodities, Nature, and People in the Neoliberal Age, (Ithaca: Cornell University Press), 124-139.

A national park is supposed to be pristine nature, a place where flora and fauna are left to thrive without disturbance. For many advocates of conservation, the wildness of this kind of nature imbues it with a particular kind of value—an intrinsic value, the value of global heritage, a priceless treasure. For them, a park is the ultimate non commodity. If they discuss the commodity value of the services nature provides, it is not to assert the commodity status of nature itself, but as a tactic to promote the survival of parks in a world dominated by commodity thinking. Further, despite the structural similarity between the enclosure of a park and the enclosure of a plantation—a similarity especially visible for the victims of such an enclosure of a plantation—a similarity especially visible for the victims of such an enclosure—conservationists do not see their projects in these terms. As Peluso and Nevins point out in their introduction, conservationists see their effort as part of what Karl Polanyi (2001, 141) called a countermovement—the endeavor to protect the non commodity status of the elements essential to the maintenance of life. Yet the projects establishing both wildness and the non commodity status of a park are best understood as just that—as projects, not as established facts. They are seriously unconvincing to the people most affected by these renderings of nature, namely, people living in the vicinity of parks who pay a tangible price for the conservation when they are excluded from he use of park resources. In this chapter I explore contestations around the wildness and the non commodity status of protected nature, drawing on a case study of Sulawesi’s Lore Lindu National Park.

2009   “Reflections on Indonesian violence: two tales and three silences” Theme issue, “Violence today,” Socialist Register 45:163-180.

The three major rounds of violence in Sulawesi from 1998-2001 were, sadly, not unique cases in Indonesia during this period: violence and mass evictions along ethnic or religious lines broke out in five provinces following President Suharto’s ouster in 1998, after 32 years of military-inflected rule. How can such violence be explained? I would argue, accounts of violence need political economy to counter the simplifying culturalism of so much popular analysis. An emphasis on culture and meaning, on the other hand, is needed to counter the crude materialism of neo-Malthusian accounts, both popular and academic, that attribute conflict to the pressure of people on resources, radically under-specifying the diverse forms and mechanisms of this ‘pressure’, and failing to account for populations under extreme economic stress who nevertheless establish conditions of tolerance and peace. While polemical encounters sometimes require a simplifying emphasis on the cultural or the material, the risk of such polemics is to re-establish a dichotomy that scholars building on the legacy of cultural Marxism have worked hard to dissolve. In a conflict zone such as highland Sulawesi, a form of analysis which attempts to grasp the materiality of cultural understandings, and the simultaneity of material and symbolic struggles seems especially important. The causes of violence are unlikely to be reducible to either material or cultural, and much is obscured by a crude binary framing. To delve deeper, we need to break three silences which cloud popular understandings of violence: a silence about history, about geography, and about agency.

2010   “Agrarian Class Formation in Upland Sulawesi, 1990-2010ChATSEA Working Papers No 9 (Canada Research Chair in Asian Studies – Université de Montréal).

Since colonial times, there have been reports of rapid class formation on Southeast Asia’s forest frontiers, when people start to plant cash crops and became indebted to co‐villagers and traders. Co‐ lonial officials were often alarmed at the enthusiasm of highlanders for the latest boom crop, and their neglect of food production. Stable mixes of food and cash crop production did emerge in some areas, especially where land was abundant, but where land was scarce, class differentiation could be steep and rapid. This paper provides an ethnographic account of class formation, tracked over a period of twenty years in one corner of highland Sulawesi.
In 1990, the indigenous highlanders all had access to ancestral land on which they grew rice and corn as food, together with tobacco or shallots for cash. By 2009, the land was covered in cacao and clove trees, and few people were growing any food at all. Some farmers had accumulated large areas of land, while many of their neighbours and kin had become landless and jobless too, as there is little demand for their labour. In contrast to lowland areas in which class‐based divisions are entrenched, highlanders had no previous experience with agrarian differentiation. Hence, they had no mecha‐ nisms to prevent the accumulation of land in a few hands, claim a right to work, or spread the profits.
The paper explains why the transition occurred so quickly, and how the highlanders handled the increasingly unequal social world their actions created. It also considers the consequences of landless‐ ness at a conjuncture where the forest frontier has closed, and there is no industrial development to generate new jobs. A truncated agrarian transition in which exit from agriculture is not followed by entry into wage work, makes livelihoods radically insecure.

2012   “Why so fast? Rapid Class Differentiation in Upland Sulawesi” In Jonathan Rigg and Peter Vandergeest (Eds) Revisiting Rural Places: Pathways to Poverty and Prosperity in Southeast Asia. (National University of Singapore Press/University of Hawaii Press), 193-210.
2014   “Introduction” to Lands End: Capitalist Relations on an Indigenous Frontier (Durham and London: Duke University Press), 1-29.

Drawing on two decades of ethnographic research in Sulawesi, Indonesia, Tania Murray Li offers an intimate account of the emergence of capitalist relations among indigenous highlanders who privatized their common land to plant a boom crop, cacao. Spurred by the hope of ending their poverty and isolation, some prospered, while others lost their land and struggled to sustain their families. Yet the winners and losers in this transition were not strangers—they were kin and neighbors. Li’s richly peopled account takes the reader into the highlanders’ world, exploring the dilemmas they faced as sharp inequalities emerged among them.
The book challenges complacent, modernization narratives promoted by development agencies that assume inefficient farmers who lose out in the shift to high-value export crops can find jobs elsewhere. Decades of uneven and often jobless growth in Indonesia meant that for newly landless highlanders, land’s end was a dead end. The book also has implications for social movement activists, who seldom attend to instances where enclosure is initiated by farmers rather than coerced by the state or agribusiness corporations. Li’s attention to the historical, cultural, and ecological dimensions of this conjuncture demonstrates the power of the ethnographic method and its relevance to theory and practice today.

Luke, Joice Yulinda

2015   “The Use of Code-Mixing among Pamonanese in Parata Ndaya Closed-Group Facebook” Lingua Cultura 9(1): 40-46.

Research intended to figure out why Pamonanes did code-mixing in Parata Ndaya, a Facebook closed-group site. The research applied qualitative method to get the types of code-mixing and reasons for doing code-mixing, while the analysis used Hoffman’s theory. Data were taken from comments of three active members of Parata Ndaya. Comments selected were mainly focused on political issues that happened during Regional House Representative Election in 2014. Data analysis reveals that code-mixing is mostly found in jokes and some comments about political leaders. Thus, the results can provide insights for Parata Ndaya members to build awareness on preserving their local language (i.e. Pamona language) as well as to enhance solidarity among members of the group site.

Martens, Michael P.

1989   “The Badaic Languages of Central Sulawesi” Studies in Sulawesi linguistics, part I, ed. by James N. …

McRae, Dave

2007   “Criminal justice and communal conflict: A case study of the trial of Fabianus Tibo, Dominggus da Silva and Marinus Riwu” Indonesia 83: 79–117.

Noorduyn, Jacobus.

1991   A Critical Survey of Studies on the Languages of Sulawesi. Leiden, KITLV Press.

Nourse, Jennifer

1994   “Making monotheism: global Islam in local practice among the Laujé of Indonesia” Journal of ritual studies 8(2): 1-18.

This paper explores the complex interaction between state-sanctioned Islam and local religious practice in Indonesia’s periphery. In 1982 in the “county” of Tinombo, Central Sulawesi, immigrant Reform Muslims convinced the regional government to ban a spirit possession ritual performed by the indigenous Laufe people. Reformists claimed that Laujé spirit mediums were possessed by satanic spirits. Insulted by Reformists’ claims that Laujé rites were pagan and they themselves were not Muslims, prominent Laujé went to officials in the government asking to rescind the ban. In their arguments, Laujé borrowed the rhetoric of Reform Islam. The ban was rescinded in 1984. Once the rite was performed again in 1985 the Laujé participants continued using Reformists’ categories to define their rite. This paper examines why and how particular Laujé, female spirit mediums and male interpreters, borrowed the rhetoric of Reformist Islam. The participants in the spirit possession rite, each in their own way, used the rhetoric of global Islam not as a “watered down” version of a Great Tradition, but as a vehicle for subtly subverting the premises on which that rhetoric was based.

1994   “Official rhetoric, popular response: dialogue and resistance in Indonesia and the Philippines” Social Analysis 35: 3-10.
1994   “Textbook heroes and local memory: writing the right history in central Sulawesi” Social analysis 35: 102-21.
1996   “Casting out the foreigners: interpretation of a curing rite in central Sulawesi, Indonesia” Anthropology and humanism 21(1): 41-54.

When I began fieldwork among the Laujé of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, one particular man, Sumpitan, became my key informant and friend. Sumpitan explained the Laujé worldview in such a way that correlated the spirit world with the social world. He believed that spirits were metaphoric representations of the good and evil actors in everyday Laujé life. Because Sumpitan’s metaphoric view described so eloquently the social, economic, and political turmoil of Laujé life, I adopted his worldview. When Sumpitan died in 1985, however, I found that not all Laujé regarded spirits as metaphors. Many of the people in the community believed it sacrilegious to define spirits in terms of the social world. Their rather mystical, non‐meaning‐oriented interpretations led me to characterize the Laujé worldview as twofold: one part metaphoric and the other mystical. In the conclusion of this paper, however, I discuss the pitfalls of using key informants’ voices to make clear, consistent, and homogeneous statements about worldview. I conclude that people’s interpretations of the ritual world are difficult to characterize in terms that are compatible with anthropological writing.

1996   “The voice of the winds versus the masters of cure: contested notions of spirit possession among the Laujé of Sulawesi” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (New Series) 2(3): 425-42.

Spirit possession is often treated as a compensatory response to disempowerment. In effect, mediums use spirits as covert proxies for their own unsatisfied desires. But not all spirit possession can be analysed in this way. Among the Lauje of Indonesia, the significance of spirits speaking through mediums in hotly contested. Spirit mediums, primarily women, believe their possession exemplifies a model life of passive submission to spiritual forces. Interpreter-curers, who translate spirit speech and are mostly men, argue that some mediums fake possession. They claim that only they can identify real spirits and thus cause `good’ spirits to heal. I use these contested Lauje notions of spirits and agency as the foundation from which to question some of the more common assumptions anthropologists make about the meaning of possession.

2002   “Who’s exploiting whom?: agency, fieldwork, and representation among Lauje of Indonesia” Conflict at the center of ethnography 27(1): 27-42.
2011   “Objects of desire: photographs and retrospective narratives of fieldwork in Indonesia” Museums and memory 39: 195-214.

This article focuses on two events; my 1985 confrontation with a thief who stole my shoes, my husband’s shoes, and some clothing, and the subsequent public response to that accusation. Reconsidering the event 17 years later, I reflect on my own complicity in creating the conflict, others’ motivations for gossiping about the thief in the first place, and the thief and his friends’ motivations for shouting, “American, go home!” I situate myself and the other actors—the thief, the members of the crowd, and gossips outside the conflict—within the political and economic context in which the encounter occurred and consider whether it is possible to delineate the various actors’ intentions. I question scholarly assumptions (inspired by Said’s Orientalism [1978]) that seem to portray fieldwork as a one‐sided endeavor in which Western agents/ethnographers misrepresent non‐Western others, even act as domineering agents, while the locals are passive victims, without power and agency of their own. Employing a nonreductive feminist theory of agency, I consider the ways in which participants and behind‐the‐scenes gossips exercise a form of agency to implement their desires while simultaneously being constrained by their positions of powerlessness. My conclusion ends with lingering questions about whether it is possible to “really” interpret others’ motivations. I propose that a reflexive awareness of my own and others’ power and agency can help ameliorate misrepresentation, though never resolve it.

Robinson, Kathryn

1986   “Stepchildren in their own land: Class and Identity in an Indonesian Corporate Town” Mankind 16(2): 85-98.

The people of a rural village in Indonesia have been incorporated into a modern town which grew up as a consequence of the establishment of a foreign owned nickel mining and processing facility. The paper examines the assertion of ethnic identity by the indigenous population of the village in the context of the changes in their social and economic milieu. Soroakan identity is examined as a response to the oppression arising on the basis of capitalist class relations. Because of the apparent fit between the status hierarchy derived from the company’s manpower structure. and a hierarchy of racial and ethnic groups, the Soroakan people identify race and ethnic group relations, rather than the capitalist rationality of the company. as the cause of their felt dispossession.

1998 “Love and sex in an Indonesian mining town” in Krishna Sen, Maila Stivens eds. Gender and Power in Affluent Asia (London: Routledge).

1998 “Sawerigading vs. Sharia: Identities and Political Contestation in Decentralised Indonesia” Asian Journal of Social Science 39(2): 219 – 237.

Islamist groups are attempting to shape Indonesia’s political landscape post-New Order through advocating local regulations based on sharia in districts newly empowered by regional autonomy. In the province of South Sulawesi, which was gripped by a separatist Islamic rebellion in the 1950s and 1960s, the former rebel leader, Kahar Muzakkar, is invoked in a movement to implement sharia-based local regulations. However, the politics of decentralisation are also associated with a resurgence of local cultural identities, which embrace non-Islamic traditions. In Muslim South Sulawesi, these claims have been expressed through the ceremonial re-installation of local traditional rulers and performance of public ceremonies to care for the sacred regalia that legitimate authority, but also through government-funded seminars that explore distinctive Bugis and Makassarese cultural traditions. These claims to power can be understood as a reaction to the taming of cultural difference by the Suharto regime, but they also represent vehicles for local elites to assume power. Based on an analysis of one of the district cultural seminars and accompanying cultural festival, this paper examines the manner in which cultural traditions are strategically mobilised in South Sulawesi, in a rival movement to the Islamist claims to implement sharia.

Sangaji, Arianto

2007  Adat in Central Sulawesi: contemporary deployments” in Jamie S. Davidson & David Henley eds. The Revival of Tradition in Indonesian Politics: The deployment of adat from colonialism to indigenism (London: Routledge), 319-36.
2007   “The security forces and regional violence in Poso” in Renegotiating boundaries: local politics in post-Suharto Indonesia, edited by Henk Schulte Nordholt and Gerry Van Klinken (Leiden: KITLV), 255-81.

Santaella, Mayco A.

2019 “‘Doing Rano’ Among the Kaili of Central Sulawesi: A Choreomusicological Analysis of the Body as Cultural Locus of the Sound-Movement Continuum.” Asian Music Journal. 50(2): 33-57.

Artikel ini meninjau ulang konseptualisasi musik dan tari Anglophone melalui penelusuran interkonektivitas pada ihwal suara, lirik, dan gerakan dalam Rano. Tradisi adat suku Kaili di Sulawesi Tengah, Indonesia, Rano didasarkan pada eksekusi gerakan melingkar dalam satu putaran melodi yang di dalamnya mencakup konstruksi “spontan” atas ayat-ayat yang dinyanyikan. Dengan mempertimbangkan pertautan antara strategi analitik mengenai suara dalam etnomusikologi dan gerakan dalam etnokoreologi, artikel ini memosisikan tubuh sebagai lokus budaya guna penilikan akan rangkaian suara-gerak pada tradisi-tradisi di Asia Tenggara.

2017 “Re-Molding Bodies Within National Kinetics: Post-Independence Tari Approaches During the Reformation Era in Central Sulawesi.” Chapter in a book: Perspectives on Dance Education. (NUSPARC.)

2017 “Shared Practices and Idiosyncrasies of the Bajau / Sama’ Tagunggu’ Ensemble.” Chapter in a book: Perspectives of Bajau/Sama’ Diasporas. (NUSPARC.)

2015 “Kanci. Kesok-kesok. Ganrang. Ganrang bulo. Lae-lae. Calon. Arababu. Kolintang. Rere. Geso-geso. Bas(i).” In Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. (Oxford: Oxford University Press.)

2014 “Tradition, Kreasi Baru and Ethnotainment: Three Representational Kakula Spheres Among the To Kaili of Central Sulawesi” In Malaysia Music Journal, 3(2), 66-83.

After Indonesia’s proclamation of independence in 1945, the government has had a continuous role in the construction of a national cultural identity. Following nationalistic cultural policies during the authoritarian Orde Baru (New Order) period (1966-1998), composers throughout the nation began creating new works developing traditional instruments and ensembles. After 1998, a new national era known as Reformasi (reformation) ended over three decades of National oriented cultural policies. This paper analyzes the use and development of the kakula (gong- row instrument and ensemble) among the Kaili of Central Sulawesi within national cultural policies. Divided into three main sections, the first part looks at the practiceand continuity of the kakula ensemble traditionalised (Santaella, 2014) within the new national Indonesian framework. The second part analyzes the post-independence developmental works of the composer Hasan Bahasyuan and the expansion of the kakula ensemble within the new national genre of kreasi baru (new creation), as an approach through which Central Sulawesi asserts its presence as part of Indonesia’s development of a national cultural identity with a Javanese-dominated hegemonic culture (Sutton, 2002). The third section looks at the compositions of the prominent group “Ensamble Modero Palu” active mostly during the reformasi era and conceived as a post-nationalist kakula within a new post-colonial framework. Conceptualised by the music director Amin Abdullah as ‘ethnotainment’, the ensemble presents and represents a contemporary expression of Kaili-ness through the performing arts.

2014 “Early Music Identities Among the Kaili: An Educational Approach to Applied Ethnomusicology in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.” With Mohammad Amin Abdullah. Chapter in Sustainability in Music and the Performing Arts: Heritage, Performance, and Education. (UPSI University Press.)

2014 Nyanyian Anak-Anak Kaili With Mohammad Amin Abdullah. Yayasan Modero Palu, Palu, Indonesia.

2013 “The Kakula of Central Sulawesi as the Southernmost point of a lineage: Current Practices and Cultural Links” In Musika Journal 9, UP Center for Ethnomusicology.

Cultural links present throughout Southeast Asia have helped in the conceptualization of the region as a unit. Despite this, inter-national (a current boundary that is still present both in practice and analysis) cultural connectivities through performance presentations and different comparative studies have considered mostly dominant forms such as the Indonesian gamelan tradition (especially that of Central Java) and the Thai piphat ensemble, which enjoy a relatively elevated presence in their own nations and abroad. An analysis of the gong-row tradition located in the region of eastern Indonesia and its connection with the southern Philippines functions as a case of a Southeast Asian cultural linkage through non-dominant cultural forms. Through an examination of the kakula gong-chime tradition in relation to other gong-row traditions, I further posit a quadripartite combination of critical features for the genre: the melodic instrument, the ensemble, the repertoire, and its performance. Following the notion of Indonesian historiographer Kartodirdjo (2001) of a history as supporting and developing symbolic identities, I argue that the gong-row instrument, ensemble, repertoire, and performance (this quadripartite conceptualization) constitute a shared connection for the peoples of this cultural complex. The tradition widely known as kulintang, a floating term in the region, functions as an identity marker for each locale as well as for a larger Malay identity. This paper examines the genre at micro and macro levels, juxtaposing local particularities and a shared common practice.

2009 “Dari Festival Danau Poso.” Majalah Gong, Indonesia.

Scalici, Giorgio

Schrauwers, Albert

1995  The Household and Shared Poverty in the Highlands of Central Sulawesi.Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, incorporating Man n.s. vol. 1 (2): 337-57.

Analysis of Geertz’s concept of `shared poverty’ has generally been restricted to the case of Java. By examining a newly created peasantry in the highlands of Sulawesi, I challenge the assumptions underlying Geertz’s formulation of `shared poverty’ and that of his critics. These critics have questioned the applicability of the concept in a comodified economy, but have accepted its relevance in an increasingly more remote and `traditional’ past. This case study, in contrast, attempts to demonstrate that `shared poverty’ is less a characteristic of a traditional economy, than the product of the differentiation of the peasantry under capitalism. Geertz’s original universalistic ethical formulation of the concept is criticized for failing to specify the bounded kin groups within which it applies.

1997   “Houses, hierarchy, headhunting and exchange: Rethinking political relations in the Southeast Asian Realm of Luwu” Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde vol. 153 (3): 311-35.
1998   “’Let’s Party’: State Intervention, Discursive Traditionalism and the Labour Process of Highland Rice Cultivators in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.” Journal of Peasant Studies Vol. 25 (3): 112-30.

The state has intruded in the labour process of the highland wet‐rice farmers of Central Sulawesi since the imposition of Dutch colonial rule in 1905. Capitalist development since that time has resulted in differentiation in the ownership of the means of production; however, class tensions have been countered by the New Order state’s shrouding the work process in a ‘discursive traditionalism’ which transforms wage labour into a ‘work party’. The transformations in this work party over time and the resultant political ramafications are examined.

1999   “Negotiating Parentage: The Political Economy of Kinship in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia” American Ethnologist Vol. 26 (2): 310-23.

Widespread fosterage and adoption has recently emerged around Lake Poso in Central Sulawesi within the wider constraints of peasantization, whereby kin are ideologically set off as a source of noncommodified labor for a newly constituted peasantry. The differentiation of this peasantry has been blunted and a kin-based “moral economy” created through the transfer of dependents (rather than resources) between households. This transfer of kin has been eased by a concept of parentage that stresses nurturance and sharing, not just filiation. Class tensions are muted by the insistence that the calculation of costs and benefits between kin is unseemly. Fosterage, however, opens up tensions as some “parents” exploit their newly acquired “free” domestic labor. This article focuses on the terms foster children use to resist this exploitation, namely their refusal to acknowledge a parental tie. Drawing on historically constituted relations of subordination, these dependents draw on the now legally defunct vocabulary of master (kabosenya) and slave (wdlu.i) to describe their position.

2000   “Three weddings and a Performance: Marriage, Households and Development in the Highlands of Central Sulawesi”, American Ethnologist 27(4): 1-23.

To Pamona couples are generally married in three ceremonies: traditional, church, and civil. Here, I treat each ceremony as a performative genre that constitutes the household differently. Both church and state actors see themselves as modernist reformers of tradition, which they view as a hindrance to development. I argue, however, that the traditional household form is the product of the modernizing efforts of church and state and hence points to a process of the development of underdevelopment. The wedding has become a key site of cultural contestation in which the constitution of the household is the outcome affecting livelihoods and the distribution of resources. The flows of performative elements from one genre of wedding ceremony to another are thus attempts to assert and resist hegemony.

2000   “Pillars of Faith: Religious Rationalization in the Netherlands and Indonesia.” Journal for the History of Dutch Missions and Overseas Churches 7(1): 1-23.
2002   “The Miser’s Store: Property and Traditional Law in the Governance of the Economy.” Journal of Peasant Studies 29(2): 24-46.

Recent studies of ‘liberal governmentality’ have examined how state actions regulate the ideally self-regulating economic sphere [Burchell, 1991]; this article highlights the particular dilemmas of liberal governmentality in a colonial arena where not one, but two types of economy were posited. By analysing the system of traditional property law implemented by the Dutch in two locations in central Sulawesi, Netherlands East Indies (now Indonesia), I show that property is only an indifferent marker of class, and that the limits of surplus extraction are set by control of other means of production. By arguing that both ‘traditional’ and ‘capitalist’ economies are embedded in the same local legal culture, I hope to demonstrate that a shift from the one to the other cannot of itself offer the promised benefits of modernity.

2004   “H(h)ouses, E(e)states and class: On the importance of capitals in central Sulawesi” Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. 160 (1): 71-93.
2016   “Houses of Worship in central Sulawesi: The Role of Precedence, Hierarchy and Class in the Development of House Ideology” Anthropological Forum 26(4): 333-54.

The social and cultural complexity of the central portion of the island of Sulawesi was well documented by missionary ethnographers at the end of the nineteenth century. Drawing on this extensive corpus of historical material, I sketch out a comparative framework for the analysis of the development of House ideology there. The six coastal kingdoms that encompassed the highlands of central Sulawesi were politically organised in Houses, a kinship strategy first proposed by Claude Lévi-Strauss. Here, I examine the factors that encouraged (or discouraged) the transformation of highland temples associated with headhunting (lobo) into the majestic Houses of aristocrats like the Tongkonan still seen in Tana Toraja. This comparative analysis points to the different political tensions created by the distinct systems of precedence, hierarchy and class in the dualistic Founders’ Cult found across the island as the source of this transformation.

Velthoen, Esther J.

1997   “‘Wanderers, Robbers and Bad Folk’: the Politics of Violence, Protection and Trade in Eastern Sulawesi 1750–1850” in Anthony Reid ed. The Last Stand of Asian Autonomies: Responses to Modernity in the Diverse States of Southeast Asia and Korea, 1750–1900 (Springer; SEESEA), 367-88.

Tyson, Adam D.

2015  The Politics of Decentralisation and Indigenous Revivalism, in Sulawesi Indonesia” PhD Thesis, School of Politics and International Studies, University of Leeds

The political transition in May 1998 set the stage for the passing of Indonesia’s framework decentralisation laws (numbers 22 and 25 of 1999). These laws include both political and technocratic efforts to devolve authority from the centre (Jakarta) to the peripheries. Contrary to expectations, enhanced public participation often takes the form of indigenous (adat) revivalism, a highly contested and contingent process linked to intensified political struggles and conflicts throughout the archipelago. This thesis considers the ways in which decentralisation and adat revivalism intersect by foregrounding specific, localised struggles for rights and recognition in Sulawesi,, eastern Indonesia. Year-long research for this thesis was conducted at national, provincial, and local levels, with an emphasis on case studies from the districts of Bulukumba, East Luwu, Gowa, Majene, North Luwu, Palopo, and Tana Toraja. The core chapters of this thesis suggest that the innate, primordial givens of indigenous communities are being selectively drawn upon, finely-tuned, and exemplified in the search for political rights and recognition. It is argued, therefore, that village communities are increasingly engaged in a process of “becoming indigenous,” a process largely driven, instrumentalised, and distorted by external actors such as NGO activists and legal advocates. Local disputes increasingly derive from the primary, exigent right of recognition, and then extend to remedial rights including customary tenure, resource entitlement, and the right to return to antedated systems of governance. In the era of decentralisation there is no unified, grand procedural strategy for dealing with the political challenges posed by adat revivalism. In response to the devolution of authority from Jakarta to the peripheries, however, the political contours of conflict mediation and dispute resolution are being reconfigured, and the roles of all protagonists are evolving (or regressing) accordingly.

2011   “Being Special, Becoming Indigenous: Dilemmas of Special Adat Rights in Indonesia” Asian Journal of Social Science, 39(5): 652 – 673.

From 1998 onwards Indonesia’s reform era (reformasi) has captured the imagination of growing numbers of observers, experts and scholars. Policies of decentralisation and enhanced public participation projects have reawakened old debates surrounding indigenous rights, power and status. This article examines the dilemma of special rights, particularly those related to the political revival of customs and traditions (adat istiadat). Calls for exigent recognition and redistributive rights for particular groups and ‘unique’ village communities frequently take the form of indirect regulatory negotiations and direct struggles for land. Case studies from Sulawesi are therefore used to examine heavily contested processes of decentralisation and local autonomy, which in many respects enable the revival of local adat. Distinctions are made between static and fluid views of adat, between being special by virtue of birthright on the one hand, and becoming indigenous by way of deliberate political intervention and mobilisation on the other.

Waterson, Roxana

2000  Holding Back the Mountain: Historical Imagination and the Future of Toraja- Bugis RelationsANTROPOLOGI INDONESIA 63: 64-80.

Tulisan ini mengkaji masa lalu dari sudut pandang ‘ingatan sosial’ (social memory) dan peranannya dalam mengonseptualisasi identitas serta hubungan-hubungan etnis dalam perubahan politik orang-orang Toraja dan Bugis di Sulawesi Selatan. Dalam perjalanan sejarah, kedua pihak selalu menjalin hubungan. Terdapat pula hubungan yang erat dalam bahasa dan kebudayaan mereka. Walaupun penduduk di dataran tinggi memiliki status yang marjinal dibandingkan dengan mereka yang tinggal di dataran rendah—yang secara politik lebih berkuasa—sepanjang sejarah mereka telah hidup bersama secara damai, dan dihubungkan oleh jaringan-jaringan perdagangan serta perkawinan campuran di antara kaum bangsawan kedua pihak. Tetapi, dalam ingatan sosial orang Toraja, beberapa kejadian memiliki signifikansi mitologis.
Mereka memiliki ingatan atas peristiwa saat mereka bersama-sama mengusir orang- orang Bugis yang memasuki wilayahnya dari arah pegunungan. Peristiwa itu diklaim sebagai terjadi selama masa pemerintahan Arung Palakka dari Bone. Berdasarkan catatan sejarah, Arung Palakka dinyatakan memimpin ekspedisi ke dataran tinggi pada tahun 1683. Kampanye ini tercatat dalam sumber-sumber orang Bugis sebagai kemenangan, tetapi dikenang oleh orang Toraja sebagai kekalahan atas kekuatan orang Bone. Sejumlah bukti Toraja menyatakan bahwa suatu kutukan telah diucapkan, yakni siapa saja yang menyebabkan timbulnya masalah di antara mereka, apakah Toraja atau Bugis, haruslah memperoleh hukuman untuk ditaklukkan.
Dalam tulisan ini, perhatian penulisnya tertuju pada bagaimana dan mengapa cerita- cerita ini dan yang lain menjadi bagian dari ‘ingatan’ mereka, dan mengapa mereka tetap memanfaatkannya pada masa kini. Cerita telah menjadi bagian dari definisi orang Toraja tentang identitas, dan menyajikan suatu landasan untuk bertindak. Tindakan itu memperoleh kekuatan tambahan setiap kali cerita itu diaktifkan kembali. Dalam situasi masa kini dengan adanya ketegangan hubungan etnis, orang-orang Toraja merasakan kekhawatiran atas ancaman ekstrimis yang dapat membahayakan hubungan-hubungan baik dan masa depan yang damai.

Weber, Robert, Werner Kreisel and Heiko Faust

2003   “Colonial Interventions on the Cultural Landscape of Central Sulawesi by “Ethical Policy”: The Impact of the Dutch Rule in Palu and Kulawi Valley, 1905–1942Asian Journal of Social Science 31(3): 398 – 434.

The colonial conquest of Palu and Kulawi Valley in western Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, is characterised by the so-called “ethical policy”, which was introduced to Dutch colonial policy at the beginning of the 20th century. An in-depth analysis of Dutch colonial sources, the memories van overgave, which have never been analysed in such detail on the subject of cultural geography, reveals that almost all facets of cultural landscape were influenced? by the Dutch rule. These sources also disclose the ambiguous use of ethical policy by justifying or withdrawing colonial intervention in this area.